Theodore Roosevelt and Thomas Woodrow Wilson in United States Policy [History Essay Example]

Theodore Roosevelt and Thomas Woodrow Wilson in United States Policy

Part I

1. Rapid development in the industrial sphere demanded a conquest of other lands to get the raw materials. In order to increase exports, manufacturers and farmers were needed. American industry requested new markets. Therefore, the naval forces had to expand with the purpose of protecting shipping lanes where vessels could replenish their supplies. The country had to expand its territory and democratic values, moral and religious idealism, and obligation to colonize other less developed nations by survival of the fittest.
2. Religious ideologists thought that they had ethical and religious excellence and needed to implement the Christian religion in other less developed nations. Protestant missionaries considered that it was their duty to bring their own faith to native people all over the world. The indigenous people’s adoption of the Christian religion was a decisive step in the loss of their own originality. Progressivism began from the social movement but then developed as a political force.
3. It was the first imperialist war for the repartition of colonial possessions. Spain was an extensive empire, and Cuba was one of its oldest colonies. Cubans revolted against the Spanish authorities in 1895. The majority of Americans were sympathetic to their aspiration for independence. The rebellion was strongly suppressed, and sentential coverage in the New York Journal and other New York press just raised American sympathy to the rebels. In 1898, the Spanish Minister of the Unites States Depuy de Lome criticized President McKinley. After the exposition of the U.S. battleship Maine in Havana Harbor, the war was started between the United States and Spain.
4. American Empire became very powerful with great self-confidence and the support of manifest destiny. America caught up the freedom of Cuba and other lands taken from Spain in this war. The revolt followed in the Philippines while the rebels realized that their islands would be administrated by the U.S. According to the agreement that ended the war, America got Puerto Rico, Guam, and other islands in the Pacific Ocean and Hawaii.
5. Theodore Roosevelt persistently held an imperialist foreign policy, confirming the Unites States’ new status as a world power. With his stiff diplomacy, he made an agreement to end the Russo-Japanese War and proclaimed The Open Door policy towards China and allowed his administration to be involved in relationships that made possible the United States’ control over the Panama Canal. Theodore Roosevelt clearly formed the extension of the Monroe Doctrine whereby Americans could intervene in the controversy between North and South America and other political forces.
6. The growth of industry in the Unites States was considerable and rapid. America was a rural country shifted to cities. The US economy transformed from agricultural to industrial. The factories and plants of America were producing much more than the country consumed. Therefore, foreign markets were extremely needed to sell off the excess. This demand for new markets was one reason for explanation. In addition, there was a shift in foreign policy from isolationism to exchange with other countries. Americans justified their expansionism by the values of American Democracy with the purpose of bringing racial and material balance to the colonized lands.
7. Liluokalone, who wanted to rule there, was overthrown, and the Republic of Hawaii appeared. Hawaii was annexed in 1989 and started to be part of the United States in 1990.
8. President McKinley wanted to expand his country. The U.S. had no justification for this war since true motivations were simply to ruin the presence of Spain in the Western Hemisphere and gain a more hegemonic power in the Western world. Like other presidents, McKinley wished to implement the Monroe Doctrine. In 1898, he was criticized by Depuy de Lome, the Spanish Minister of the Unites States.
9. The United States won the Spanish-American War in 1898 and captured the Philippines and Guam. The United States followed the example of imperialist nations in the Western Europe and sought to capture the Philippines as an imperialist colony. Roosevelt Corollary replaced the Monroe Doctrine. It allowed stabilizing weak nations in Latin America. Roosevelt policy of Big Stick was used to make the U.S. an international police force. To keep control over the economic power of the United States, Dollar Diplomacy was established.
10. The Open Door policy refers to the US policy at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. This policy gave opportunities to China to trade freely with all governments on an equal footing without total international control of the country. The Open Door policy was coordinated with foreign powers. Their sphere of interests permitted the Chinese authorities to collect tariffs on an equal basis.
11. Theodore Roosevelt became the 26 President of the U.S. in 1901. He brought new energy to the policy of the United States and won a second term in 1904. He was involved in a fight between management and labor. Roosevelt made a great effort to put an end to industrial combination under the Sherman Antitrust Act. He was an ardent conservationist and gave out 200 million acres for national forests and wildlife refuges. The President also received the Nobel Peace Prize for negotiations regarding the Russo-Japanese War and led the construction of the Panama Canal.
12. Theodore Roosevelt signed the Hay-Herran Treaty that let the canal be built across Panama, but Columbia’s authorities denied this treaty on January 1903. However, Panama, the country which was a subject of Colombia, revolted and proclaimed its independence. The U.S. accepted its independence on November 1903. The USA recognized Panama’s new government and, shortly afterwards, signed a treaty with the permission to construct and operate the Panama Canal.
13. The increasing crisis in the Dominican Republic stopped payments on its debts to different nations. It made Roosevelt reformulate the corollary of the Monroe Doctrine. This change in policy was essential to evade European powers spreading their influence on the Western Hemisphere. Theodore Roosevelt had an anxiety that Europeans could collect debts and be earnest creditors. Therefore, the Monroe Doctrine was created to keep Europe out of Latin America, and the Roosevelt Corollary was used as a justification of the United States’ intervention.
14. Initially, President Theodore Roosevelt had a good attitude toward Japan’s success in checking Russia’s challenge to the Open Door policy in Asia. However, he feared Japanese domination. He intended to create a balance of power in the area when he mediated an agreement ending the war. Understanding that Japan took advantage, Roosevelt recognized its control over Korea in the Taft-Katsura Memorandum instead of Japanese recognition of the United States dominance in the Philippines in the Root-Takahira Agreement. At the same time, rising tension between the two countries reached a culmination after California had placed limits on the rights of Japanese Americans, which Roosevelt condemned. He stipulated the Japanese authorities to restrict Japanese emigration to the USA whereas working on repealing discriminatory laws.
15. As President, Theodore Roosevelt compelled to increase the impact and force of the United States in order to be a world power no less than Europe. He understood that the extension of European influence could weaken the significance and dominance of the U.S. He gained a great influence in the Western Hemisphere and strengthened the army and navy of his country.

Part II

1. Progressives thought that the United States experienced a serious crisis at the end of the 19th century and it would not resolve itself. Their major causes were better democracy, truly fair government, favorable conditions for business, and lawful social justice for the working class.
2. They were journalists who thrived on exposing social difficulties, and corporate and political corruption. The work of these journalists reached a wide audience and raised a public interest in the muckrakers.
3. These programs aimed to provide a common man with protection from big corporations that were ruling in the industrial area. The Presidents made efforts to crack down corporate offices and made a common person financially provided. The progressive programs were dedicated to regulating the railroads and improving conditions in the workplace.
4. These elections gave Democrats a solid national power for the first time since the Civil War. It was important for progressivism. The elections brought the Southerners back into the sphere of national and international interests. The character of the Republican Party changed.
5. Roosevelt tried to create regulatory agencies that would control business. He tended to a minimum salary that would use government power to help human beings. While Wilson approved the New Freedom, in which the White House provided a basis for competition between small businessmen. Wilson tried to destroy trusts but then got the authorities out of the way so far that fair competition appeared, tending to higher outcomes without legislative intervention.
6. Progressivism includes a wide range of political, social, economic, and moral reforms. It is the effort to outlaw the sale of alcohol and regulate the labor sphere, especially child labor. The major themes of a progressive reform are also breaking up trusts, restricting immigration, managing natural resources, and eliminating corruption in the government. It is also the improvement of business operations and working conditions, getting the right to vote by women, and the public right to hold a referendum.
7. The philosophy of Wilson regarding the New Freedom showed that he could be considered the most progressive president. Wilson’s policy supported big business while Roosevelt’s New Nationalism tended to regulate it. Progressive aims were returning economic force to the people. Wilson’s intentions only truly addressed that purpose.
8. The United States became an increasingly industrialized country from 1900 to 1920. There was mass production by American factories that resulted in large-scale urbanization as most plants were in urban areas. The mass production of cars created the prosperity of the nation and led to one of the most positive changes in the social sphere. Women started to work, and their rights were protected by unions.
9. Wilson provided his New Freedom policies to the White House. It was a time of progressive reforms. The reforms were provided in legislation, including the income tax and the Federal Reserve. The elections resulted in a big political shift. The progressive wing of the Democratic and Republican parties was strengthened.
10. The Progressive Era was a period of social and political reforms in the U.S. Progressives intended to destroy corruption by exposing and undercutting big bosses. They promoted fair competition for the benefit of customers by the regulation of monopolistic trusts.
11. To maintain the mood of Progressive Era, the pen was used to handle with social ills and problems and made calls for reform. Sensational and unexpected articles were written by journalists who intended to investigate and discover wrong-goings in order to resolve the social, economic, and political problems of American society.
12. The strike of the United Mine Workers of the United States was in the east of Pennsylvania. Workers demanded higher salaries, shorter workdays, the recognition of the miners’ union, and the right to control the industry. This strike threatened to close the fuel supply to all big cities. Roosevelt took the side of workers, and they received what they asked.
13. Theodore Roosevelt was very popular to a second term and received a huge wave of public support. After his election, he vowed not to run again for the presidency, claiming that it was properly being elected twice.
14. Theodore Roosevelt was the President who realized the importance of conserving wilderness lands and natural resources. The President created the National Park System and the National Forest System. In addition, he saved more than two hundred million acres in it.
15. The U.S. election of 1908 was between Howard Taft from Republican Party and William Bryan from Democratic Party. Popular incumbent Roosevelt gave a promise not to run for the presidency. He convinced Republicans to nominate Taft, his close friend and the Secretary of War in order to be his successor. Taft won election owing to Roosevelt.

Part III

1. He did it for economic and idealistic reasons. The United States had large interests in Mexico at the time of direction of Portfirio Diaz from 1870 to 1910. That is why America was concerned about the Mexican Revolution and the spread of democracy all over the world. As Diaz was a dictator, the more democratic elements were inclined into revolution. After all, it was a matter of national pride since Wilson could not be tolerated to actions taken by Mexico against the U.S.
2. Germany was seen by the White House as a dangerous monarchy with autocratic thinking and a hidden agenda to destroy the democracy and the power of the United States. The allegations of sabotage, poisoning water supplies, and kidnapping added to the distrust of the German government.
3. He convinced the American people that it was an important task to help Europeans during the WWI. Wilson aimed to promote bigger government, globalism, and self-determination. He intended to talk with every nation in a peaceful manner.
4. Wilson’s support provided for European countries led to the Treaty of Versailles intermediately. The Senate refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles because it was the key cause of the WWII. It led to Nazi policy and other crimes against humanity.
5. The consequences of the war were drastic, political, social, and cultural in Europe, Asia, Africa, and even other areas that were directly involved. Four empires collapsed due to this war. Old nations were destroyed; new governments were created, and boundaries were altered. Moreover, international boundaries were formed, and many different ideologies took a drastic hold over the human mind.
6. Despite Wilson tried hard to keep America neutral, but in the spring of 1917, circumstances changed essentially. The American submarine was sunk by a German boat. Finally, the United States broke diplomatic relationships with Germany, and Congress made the decision to prepare for the war.
7. Wilson’s Fourteen Points called for peace without victory, not blaming any nation for unleashing the war, and the unimpeded use of the ocean area. Furthermore, the global organization for promoting peace and preventing the war was established.
8. Economic mobilization on the American home front was systematic and involved the entire population and all economic activities to produce munitions and food and provide finance for soldiers. The administration decided to rely on recruitment rather than voluntary set. The authorities controlled each man in a proper place in the national war without any bounties as they were prohibited.
9. Reservationists supported the treaty, but only after engaging parts of the reservation prior to ratification. The senator of Massachusetts was the leader of that group and was sincerely dedicated to eliminating the goals of Wilson. Other senators in this fraction approved the treaty, but it needed a little modification to protect the key interests of America. On the other hand, isolationist senators were against the treaty and the United States entering the war. The Senate considered dozen modifications to the treaty but, after all, decided to suggest their changes as reservations that do not ask for the formal renegotiation of the treaty.
10. At the time of the war, the Court did not actually work, but in a paradoxical manner, curtailing civil rights happened with more periodicity. After all, ordinary civil liberty occasions are exactly the ones on which this war had the most perceptible impact.
11. The intervention of the United States in the Mexican Revolution originated from anti-Hispanic U.S. intentions and a wide amount of US business investments in the economy of Mexico.
12. The government of the United States under Wilson’s control was neutral at first. The feeling of neutrality was heard among Irish, German, and Swedish Americans. Church leaders and women also supported neutrality. However, people came to see the German Empire as a source of danger after the events in Belgium. Wilson made an effort to keep the economy on a peacetime basis. To prevent any military threat, Wilson made minimal preparations for the war and increase the Navy.
13. These elections were held when European nations were involved in the war and most Americans wanted to stay neutral. Wilson had the desire to keep America out of the war. The major parties were Democratic and Republican. The President of the Democratic Party Wilson was the one who was elected twice while reaching plurality.
14. Propaganda was used in the World War I, and real facts suffered. Propaganda convinced people to get know what their governments wanted to prove. All types of information were controlled. Newspapers printed what the government intended the reader to read. Headlines were designed to cause emotions independently of whether they were real or not.
15. The Depression occurred shortly after the end of the World War I. It was an extremely large deflationary recession that lasted for seven months. A lot of factors contributed to it. Many of them related to economic adjustments after the war. Then, the economy began to grow, but all adjustments were not done completely in a peacetime economy. The facts that were shown as potentially contributing to the downturn are returning troops that contributed to raising the labor force and decreasing the fight in unions and changes in the financial sector.

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