Research Project Example


A simple, on the one hand, yet, on the other hand, a complex and practical question about which form of business is the best for a Christian businessperson is the main point of this work. In a given situation, the four brothers from a family with deep Christian creed inherited an organic farm which was run by their father as a sole proprietorship. They are interested in having their cousin run the farm since he was trained by their father, how to operate the entire farm while none of four had any experience in this work. However, their main problem is which form of business to choose to run the farm jointly? Now that there are several people having equal rights for owning and getting profits from the farm, the sole proprietorship is not an option any more. One more issue, which is of vital importance in this situation, is the point that the form of the business establishment must be in accordance with Bible and Christian worldview. After conducting this research and using different business and Christian sources, such as Dockery and Thornbury (2002), Internal Revenue Services (2013), Backet and DeMoss (1999) and others, the conclusion was made that the best option, in this case, is Limited Liability Company.

Business and Christian Worldview: Their Influence on Each Other

It seems to be rather strange: what can be mutual between Christian worldview and business? How can these different branches of our life be combined and work as a single mechanism, both bringing profit and glorifying God? The answer can be found in the Holy Bible, in Mathew’s Gospel (28:18): there’s no part of the universe, over which Jesus is not Lord. This postulate means that all branches of our life are under the influence and guidance of God; thus, by calling ourselves Christians we must follow all the precepts which Lord gave us. Moreover, we all understand that when our time comes, and we stand in front of Him, we will respond for all our deeds during the lifetime; hence, we must try our best be worthy children of our Lord. The Relevant Bible Teaching (RBT, 2013) says that there is nothing bad for Christians in running their own business and making money irrespective of quantities if it is made in accordance with God’s Law. This principle assumes high honesty, moral integrity, and respect to all customers and employees, using the principle “do unto others as you would have them do unto you”. Furthermore, the same article says that a true Christian businessperson must stand apart from doing businesses in the way, which is done in modern business world. This includes such practices as, for instance, persuading people to buy products, which they do not need, or making most of the customers “wrong” by establishing rather complex mathematics, or making the warranties which can be understood in absolutely different ways and may have contradictory meaning. As a result, many companies just cheat their clients in pursuit for money. Unlike any modern businessperson, the main question for Christian entrepreneur is not how much money he earns, but how he earns it.

In addition we must always remember, that formally Christian business does not exist, because at first there’s no type of business which is conducted only by Christians, at second only employers and employees – people can be Christians, but not the tools, cars, trucks or computers which they use, and finally at third not only businesspeople with deep Christian beliefs can have such core values of their company as being fair, providing excellent service and integrity towards the customers of their goods and services.

What Type of Business is better for a True Christian?

As it was mentioned above, no matter what business activities a Christian might have (surely except the one which specializes in producing and/or selling products which bring harm or cause violence, like guns, drugs, tobacco, etc.) – the main idea is to glorify God by being honest and opened to customers, providing service with deep respect to each person. As it is written in the Bible, “Whatever you do, do your work heartily, as for the Lord rather than for men” (Colossians 3:23).

Nowadays, the humanity lives in the era of Free Market. As we know, the main elements of the free marker are fair competition, private ownership, and a financial reward for the productivity of the business entity. Backet and DeMoss (1999) say that the nature of a working economic system affects the Christian businessperson significantly, as well as his/her company’s productivity and profits. They also added that the duty of any entrepreneur who calls himself a Christian is to save and improve the good sides of the system of the Free Market, which is severely endangered in today’s wicked and mean society, whose main goal is just to make money at any price.

The Existing Types of Business and the Optimal Choice of the One to Run a Farm for Family Members

Today, as it is shown by Small Business Administration (SBA Gov, 2013), the most popular forms of business systems are Sole Proprietorship, Corporation (also known as C Corporation), S Corporation, Cooperative, LLC and, finally, Partnership. In a given situation, when four brothers inherited the organic farm, including equal rights for owning it and sharing profits from its operations, we can see that sole proprietorship is not an option anymore since this form of business means a single owner (who decides everything only by himself).

The C Corporation is a bit more suitable option and is a form of business entity, which is also known as a classical corporation. As it is described on BizFilings website (2013), the main advantage of such form of establishment is limited liability, which means that the shareholders (whose number to the point is unlimited) typically are not responsible for the debts of the business, as well as its liabilities. Easy transferred ownership is also one of the strong sides of the C Corporation, and this trait allows owners to transfer the ownership easily, just by selling the stocks. Moreover, the expenses of the business using this type are audited much less than, for example, in case of sole proprietors. The S Corporation, according to BizFilings (2013), in its turn, is a form of a corporation which chose another tax status with Internal Revenue Service – IRS(IRS, 2013) and, unlike the classical corporation, has pass-through tax entities. Similarly, the S Corp. is void of double taxation, which is possible in classical (or C-) corporation. However, on the other hand, the S corporation in comparison to a classical C corporation, has a restriction on ownership: not more than 100 shareholders are allowed in one S corporation. Furthermore, this form of business cannot be owned, for example, by LLC’s or other corporations of any types, as well as most of the trusts. Finally, one more significant detail is that, although S corporation is a company which offers a bit less flexibility during the start of the business; however, it offers an outstanding benefit, such as tax savings. Saving on tax is the implication of self-employment since, according to the peculiarities of the S corporation, the owners of the business who work for it are also considered being employees.

At first glance, the S – corporation is a great option for restructuring of the inherited farm: quite good conditions for taxation, the number of shareholders are within the allowed range, and the limited liability is also a strong argument towards favoring this system over others. In this case, as we know, the four brothers are just going to start the business, which was nobody of them ever conducted in the past. On the other hand, the Limited Liability establishment is especially helpful for the businesspeople, who just start their venture on a business path. It is noteworthy that one more variant of LLC is possible. According to the IRS classification (2013), Limited Liability Company, in case if the number of owners exceeds 2 persons, is classified as a partnership for federal tax purposes if it does not file the form 8832 and elects to be treated as a corporation. Walter Schwidetzky (2009), while observing this issue, wrote that if an LLC is ran as a partnership, the documents, which it has to fill in order to issue the common stock and register it for the purposes of public trading, are far more challenging and consuming in time, money and efforts. Moreover, in some cases, LLC can exist only as a corporation, but not a partnership. In this case, the better option for four brothers to run the farm is establishing the LLC. Limited Liability Company is as good as a corporation due to the presence of limited liability of each owner; however, it is much less complicated in terms of document filing process and options for taxation. In addition to above benefits, the AllBusiness website (2013) emphasizes on such advantages of LLC as more flexibility than most of the other types of business have. The flexibility of LLS assumes the owners of the business can adjust their LLC to the requirements of a certain state, where the business owners established their company. The next advantage of LLC is that its owners, together with shareholders, have limited liability, which saves them from personal liability in case of a lawsuit or debt, which may occur in the course of the company’s operation. Notably, in LLC no board of directors or annual meetings are needed, which makes the life of the company easier and requires less recourses to be spent for the operations of the company. Finally, the biggest plus of the LLC as a business system is a broad choice of tax options, which greatly helps in minimizing and optimizing taxation for the entire business entity, based on a state, where it operates. For instance, the LLC may choose whether it wants to be taxed as corporation, partnership, S corporation, or a sole proprietorship.

However, just like any other form of business entity, LLC is not an ideal form of establishment and also has its disadvantages. Those downsides relate to a little structure and lack of the requirements for running the business, which later can cause troubles in the working process of the entity, until the owners of the company create a strictly determined operating agreement. The next weak point of LLC is pass-through taxation. The pass-through taxation means that all losses and profits of all the owners and shareholders, without exception, are reported individually via individual tax returns (without any considerations if the members of the LLC receive dividends or not). However, in our case, four brothers are members of one family, who are absolutely equal owners of the entity; therefore, the said disadvantage is not significant in this case. On the contrary, this disadvantage turns out to be rather a strong argument towards choosing LLC as a form of the business entity, especially for the new owners and their farm, under this case. Another weak side is that, in LLC, the investors are hesitant in investing their money in a company of this form, due to poor corporate structure, which is typical for most LLC’s. However, just as I mentioned in the description of a previous disadvantage, for the case under discussion it is not a problem since the owners of the organic farm do not plan to find any investors. Finally the last, but not least disadvantage is that some states of the USA require LLC’s to pay an additional tax, known as “franchise tax”. Therefore, despite the disadvantages which are typical for this form of business organization, according to study made by Rodney Chrisman (2009), LLC became “A New King of the Hill” among the modern business entities, and it is now the most popular form of business organization in the USA. This feature proves once again the effectiveness and reliability of the LLC as a business entity. All in all, judging by the entire situation we may conclude without any hesitations that, for the organic farm, the best and the most profitable option will be establishment under LLC provisions, which is treated as a corporation, but not a partnership. This choice is good not only from the business perspective, but also from the Christian worldview since it does not violate any of the rules which are mandatory for all Christians, who seek to live under the rules of the Lord’s Word as written in the Holy Bible. This worldview assumes running the company reasonably, with the high level of moral commitment and fair treatment of the customers while developing the business.


Becket, J., & DeMoss, T. (1999). The Christian world view of business and occupations. The Coalition on Revival Inc., 6.

Chrisman, R. D. (2009). LLCs are new King of the Hill: An empirical study of the number of new LLCs, corporations, and LPs formed in the United States between 2004-2007 and how LLCs were taxed for tax years 2002-2006. Fordham Journal of Corporate & Financial Law, 459-460.

Internal Revenue Service, (2013). Limited Liability Company (LLC). IRS Website.

Retrieved from

Schwidetzky, W. D. (2009). Integrating subchapters K and S-Just Do it. Tax Lawyer, 62(3), 768-775.

SBA Gov. (n.d.). Choose your business structure. U.S. Small Business Administration.

Retrieved from

RBT. (2013). God-honoring business practices. The Relevant Bible Teaching.

Retrieved from

AllBusiness. (2013). Pros and cons of a Limited Liability Company (LLC).AllBusiness website.

Retrieved from

BizBillings. (2013). S Corporation vs. C corporation: A comparison. BizFilings. The Small Business Incorporation Expers. Retrieved from

Criminal Procedures [Research Paper Example]

A criminal procedure refers to the attribution process of criminal law. It safeguards against wrong application of criminal law and capriccios treatment of criminal suspects (Samaha, 2014). Criminal procedures are designed to implement constitutional rights of suspected criminals and defendants, starting with the first police contact and continuing through to interrogation, arrest, investigation, court trial, sentencing, and appeals.

Apparently, most nations with a democratic system and the rule of law put the burden proof of criminal procedures on prosecution. It means that prosecution has the responsibility to prove that a criminal suspect is guilty beyond doubt as opposed to getting the defense prove innocence of the defendant, resolving any doubt in favor of the accused (Samaha, 2014).

Primary constitutional provisions on criminal procedures are found in the IV, V, VI, and VIII Amendments of the United States Constitution. These amendments cover Warrantless Searches and Arrests, as well as the right against self-incrimination (Ruschmann, 2009).

This paper will encompass a discussion of three issues in criminal procedures, which include Miranda Rights and Interrogations, Exclusionary Rule and Exceptions to it, and Warrantless Searches and Arrests. Further, the paper will present three cases in support of each issue. Lastly, a summary of the paper will be provided where issues discussed will be compared and their significance will be stated.

Miranda Rights and Interrogations

The Miranda warning, commonly refered to as the Miranda rights/rule, is a warning given by the US police to criminal suspects in custody prior to interrogation to preserve acceptability of their statements against them in criminal procedures (Burgan, 2006). Literature indicates that historically the police were too intimidating while questioning suspects (Ruschmann, 2009). This frightened them into confessing crimes they had not committed.

The Miranda warning is viewed as a criminal procedure rule stating that the law enforcement has an obligation to defend a suspect in custody and under direct interrogation or its functional equivalent from violating his/her Fifth Amendment rights against forced self-incrimination (Burgan, 2006).

Several cases support the Miranda Rights and Interrogations. The first case is that of Miranda v. Arizona. In this case, the Supreme Court were for the notion that admission of a provoked implicating statement by a criminal suspect who was not aware of these rights violated the Fifth and Sixth Amendments rights to counsel through integration of these rights into law of the state (Burgan, 2006). Therefore, if law enforcement officials refuse to offer a Miranda warning to a criminal suspect in their custody, they may question that individual and act upon the insight gained, but cannot use statements given by that individual as evidence against him in a criminal trial.

The Miranda v. Arizona United States Court ruling 384 U.S 436 is the origin of Miranda warnings. The Supreme Court of the United States stated that Ernesto Arturo Miranda’s Fifth and Sixth Amendment rights had been sullied during his arrest and trial for kidnapping, armed robbery, and rape of a handicapped woman (Burgan, 2006).

The ruling set the following warning and accompanying rights:

· A suspect has the right to keep silent,

· Everything that a suspect says can be used against him/her in a court of law,

· A suspect has a right to a lawyer who is allowed to be present during police questioning,

· If a suspect cannot afford to hire a lawyer, they will be provided with one to represent them,

· A suspect can petition a right to remain silent prior to or during questioning and, if he or she does so, the questioning must stop,

· A suspect can petition a right to have the attorney present and the questioning must be postponed till the attorney arrives.

In another 2010 case Berghuis v. Thompkins, the United States Supreme Court advanced rules for police questioning (Samaha, 2014). The court declared that criminal suspects who had been read the Miranda warnings and who indicated they understood them had to openly state during or prior to the questioning that they wanted to be silent to protect themselves against self-incrimination. If a suspect speaks to the police before petitioning the Miranda right to remain silent or at any point before the interrogation, words they utter may be used against them in a court of law. In addition, the court ruled that police officers could start the second interrogation of a criminal suspect who had invoked his Miranda rights after two weeks had elapsed from the date of the first questioning (Samaha, 2014). In this case, it is needless for the police to give the criminal suspect another Miranda warning. According to the Supreme Court, the Miranda warning given previously remains in effect; hence, statements given by the suspect in the second questioning constitute a waiver of the right to remain silent.

The most important addition to the Miranda rights is the end of the traditional question that stated “do you understand these rights as they have been read to you”. In 2010, a murder suspect failed to acknowledge his Miranda rights and later made statements that incriminated him for the crime (Samaha, 2014). The court declared that the liability was on the criminal suspect for petitioning his Miranda rights and failing to acknowledge them, which resulted in a waiver of his rights.

The third case in support of the Miranda Rights and Interrogations is the California v. Prysock case (Israel, Kamisar, & LaFave, 2003). In this case, a criminal suspect was arrested for robbery, first-degree murder, and burglary. The police officer informed the respondent of his Miranda rights. The suspect refused to talk. Parents of the suspect arrived and were informed of the rights again. At this time, he gave a statement, which was used against him in the court. The California Court of Appeals of the Fifth Appellate District reversed conviction of the respondent and ordered a novel trial founded on the base that he was denied his Miranda rights. The court petitioned for the Writ of certiorari and asked for a review of judgment. Additionally, the court held that inflexibility of the Miranda rule did not encompass precise enunciation of the given warnings.

Exclusionary Rule and Exceptions to it

The US constitutional law provides various legal principles. One such principle is the exclusionary rule, which states that facts obtained or investigated in breach of the constitutional rights of the accused are at times excluded from a criminal trial (Maclin, 2012). It is founded on the Fourth Amendment in the Bill of Rights and its aim is to defend constitutional rights by protecting unlawful seizures and searches (Orthmann & Hess, 2012). The rule is also intended to act as a deterrent among police and prosecutors who obtain proof in an illegal manner, thus violating the Fifth Amendment that protects citizens from being forced to become witnesses against themselves (O’Connor, 2006). The right of having a counsel is guaranteed in the Sixth Amendment. Most states in the US have formulated exclusionary rules for unlawfully obtained proof in accordance with their statutes or constitutions. Sometimes, the rule is termed as a legal technicality as it provides defendants with protection that fails to address if the offense has been really committed. With regard to this, the exclusionary rule is in line with the Fifth Amendment’s explicit rule that protects individuals from double threat (Maclin, 2012). The exclusionary rule is applicable to all people living in the United States, both migrants and citizens.

The fruit of the poisonous tree doctrine initially created in Silverthorne Lumber Co. v. U.S. (1920) is a kind of proof that is obtained by the prosecution or police through an unlawful action in order to achieve an incriminating result (Orthmann & Hess, 2012). The government is not prohibited by the exclusionary rule from bringing in unlawfully obtained proof to question trustworthiness of the statement provided by a defendant during trial. This exemption is acknowledged by the Supreme Court to prevent lying under oath (Maclin, 2012).

However, the exclusionary rule does not always hold as there are multiple exceptions to it. In specific situations, the exclusionary rule fails to apply and proof obtained by the prosecution is allowed in court. Situations in which the rule does not apply include the independent source doctrine, the inevitable discovery rule, the good faith expression, and the probable cause/search incident to arrest (Maclin, 2012). The independent source doctrine states that if both lawful and unlawful means are used to obtain evidence, then such proof is admissible in a court of law (O’Connor, 2006). The inevitable discovery rule states that proof is admissible in a court if such proof, although gathered unlawfully, would have ultimately been obtained in a lawful way (Orthmann & Hess, 2012). The good faith expression affirms that if the police obtain proof using a warrant that is considered as justly provided, such proof is admissible in court albeit presence of technical issues is linked with the warrant afterwards. The last exception is the probable cause, which states that if an officer makes an arrest with no legal warrant, such proof is allowed in court if there have been obvious grounds for the conduct and a legal search is carried out at once (O’Connor, 2006).

The issue of protecting constitutional rights of defendants as upheld by the exclusionary rule and exceptions, which exist to ensure that in some situations the rule does not hold, has been evidenced in many cases in the US judicial system. These cases indicate application of appropriate criminal procedures whereby constitutional rights do not compromise criminal justice. The good faith exception states that proof should not be ruled out if it is gathered by police or prosecutors who rationally depend on warrants, which in turn become void (Orthmann & Hess, 2012). This is evidenced by the case of Arizona v. Evans, 514 U.S. 1 (1995). The second case is Maryland v. Macon. 472 U.S. 463 (1985) showing that proof primarily gathered during an illegal seizure or search may afterwards become acceptable if it is later acquired using a constitutionally legal seizure or search (Orthmann & Hess, 2012). The exclusionary rule also failed to apply in Davis v. U.S.131 S. Ct. 2419 (2011) whereby the Supreme Court affirmed that when officers performed a search while depending on a compulsory appellate precedent, there were no exceptions (Maclin, 2012).

Warrantless Searches and Arrests

Some searches and arrests can be made without a legal warrant. According to the Supreme Court, warrantless searches, seizures, and arrests made by policeofficers comply with the Fourth Amendment of the Constitution provided that they are realistic (Acker & Brody, 2011). The Fourth Amendment makes this exception of warrantless constraint in order to avoid obstructing duties of police officers. The exception has been made despite the court’s endeavors to balance duties of officers and interests and privacy of citizens. Warrantless searches prevent witnesses and suspects from running away, as well as destruction of proof (Orthmann & Hess, 2012). Circumstances, under which warrantless arrest or search can be made, include “hot pursuit”, destruction of proof, and exigent circumstances (Acker & Brody, 2011).

The Fourth Amendment permits officers to conduct warrantless arrests when unlawful activities are committed in their presence. For instance, officers have the right to perform a warrantless arrest of individuals who commit offenses in public places despite having adequate time to apply for a warrant. However, the officer must have a probable cause that an offense has been committed (Orthmann & Hess, 2012). “Hot pursuit” dogma also allows officers to conduct warrantless arrests for crimes committed in private places. This is evidenced in the Warden v. Hayden, 387 U.S. 294 [1967]) case.

When an officer realistically supposes that an illegal act is taking place in a public place, the officer is allowed to stop individuals suspected of taking part in the action and perform a vigilantly limited external search for weapons, which might be used against the police. This is evidenced in the case of Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1 [1968]. Besides, the officer is allowed to ask the suspect to produce identification. Although the suspect is not compelled to agree to it, a failure to produce identification may be obvious grounds for arrest as evidenced in the case People v. Loudermilk, 241 Cal. Rptr. 208 (Cal. App. 1987) (Acker & Brody, 2011). The type of warrantless search explained here is referred to as a Terry stop/frisk. It is intended to safeguard officers from concealed weaponry, which may be used to attack them. This is similar to legal arrests and searches, which do not necessarily require a warrant. The Fourth Amendment allows the police to perform a search of a suspected individual, clothing, as well as the surrounding locale. Justification of this warrantless search is made on the basis that officers are able to guard themselves from any concealed weapon.

Another circumstance in which officers may conduct a warrantless search is when they are acting in good faith (Orthmann & Hess, 2012). This means that any search or arrest made using a flawed warrant or without one is vindicated. According to the Supreme Court, a search conducted using a warrant, which is afterwards acknowledged as void, is still believed to be rational by the Fourth Amendment (Acker & Brody, 2011). However, this is justified on the condition that such a warrant has been given by the magistrate, while the flaw has not been caused by the officer’s dishonesty. United States v. Leon, 468 U.S. 897 [1984] is a good example to illustrate this. The exception was established to protect the police who found themselves using an allegedly legal warrant while performing their duties.

Exigent circumstances are a justification provided while conducting warrantless searches or arrests. It exists when there are cases of a serious offence or when the probability of a suspect destroying the proof is high. These circumstances allow officers to enter private dwellings without a warrant, which is required by the Constitution, and conduct searches, as well as arrest suspected individuals (Orthmann & Hess, 2012). If exigent circumstances do not exist, then officers are not allowed to enter a private dwelling without a warrant. It is important for a court to determine rationality of exigent circumstances. This helps in establishing whether the officer’s conduct has justifiable. The court achieves this by assessing all circumstances, which encompass seriousness of the crime, and whether a suspected person has been running away.

Emergency situations qualify for exigent circumstances. Such situations as a threat to life, disaster, or terrorist attack have probable cause and, therefore, no warrant is necessitated. These kinds of warrantless investigations meet requirements of the Constitution provided that they are performed with the key reason of establishing the cause and controlling the situation. According to the Supreme Court, emergency circumstances, which imperil individuals’ life, are exigent in nature as evidenced in U.S. v. Holloway 2002 (O’Connor, 2006). In spite of this, police departments are required to make sure that they formulate procedures, policies, and guidelines. These help in providing sufficient and appropriate guidance to law enforcement officials on what comprises an exigent circumstance.

Summary and Conclusion

As discussed in this paper, the Exclusionary Rule and Exceptions to it, warrantless searches and arrests, and Miranda Rights and Interrogations are some of the legal principles upheld by the US Constitution. As evidenced, the exclusionary rule is aimed at protecting constitutional rights of defendants. This is achieved by excluding proof obtained through violation of constitutional rights of defendants from the criminal trial. The exclusionary rule is founded on the Fourth and Fifth Amendments of the US Constitution. Its aim is to safeguard individuals from unlawful seizures and searches conducted by police officers. It also deters officers and prosecutors who unlawfully obtain evidence by breaching the Fifth Amendment. The rule is applicable to all people living in the US. However, there exist certain exceptions to the exclusionary rule. These exceptions make evidence obtained by police officers (during an illegal seizure or search with or without a warrant) to be acceptable in a court trial. Nevertheless, police officials must have a probable cause.

Similar to the exclusionary rule, warrantless searches and arrests are upheld by the Constitution under the Fourth Amendment. The amendment makes exceptions of a warrant requirement while conducting searches and arrests. The aim is to prevent obstruction of the work of law enforcement officials. There are various situations when officers are allowed to conduct warrantless searches. These encompass exigent circumstances when the suspect is deemed to have a high probability of destroying evidence, when offense committed in the presence of an officer, or when the officer is acting in good faith. However, officers should have a probable cause that an offense has been committed. Aspects of good faith expressions are also evident in both issues. In both cases, the court has endeavored at striking balance between interests and privacy of citizens and practical duties of law enforcement officers.

Similarly, the Miranda rule is among exclusions that have been developed to reinforce rights of criminal suspects held in police custody. The warning entails protecting a person’s right relating to interrogation against one’s will. Initially, the police were intimidating in their questioning and forced people to confess crimes they had not committed. The Miranda rule is significant as it prevents individuals from incriminating themselves in a court trial when they do not understand their constitutional rights. In other words, if criminal procedures violate the Miranda rights of individuals by not advising them of their constitutional rights, their statements cannot incriminate them.


Acker, J. R., & Brody, D. C. (2011). Criminal procedure: A contemporary perspective. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Burgan, M. (2006). Miranda V. Arizona: The rights of the accused. Minneapolis, MN: Capstone.

Israel, J. H., Kamisar, Y., & LaFave, W. (2003). Criminal procedure and the constitution: Leading Supreme Court cases and introductory text. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing

Maclin, T. (2012). The supreme court and the Fourth Amendment’s exclusionary rule. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

O’Connor, T. (2006). Search and seizure: A guide to rules, requirements, tests, doctrines, and exceptions. Retrieved from

Orthmann, C. H., & Hess, K. (2012). Criminal investigation (10th ed.). New York, NY: Cengage Learning.

Ruschmann, P. (2009). Miranda rights. New York, NY: Infobase Publishing.

Samaha, J. (2014). Criminal procedure. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning

The September 11 Attacks [History Research Paper]

Twelve years ago, on September 11, 2001, there was committed the largest terrorist attack in the history of humankind. The terrorists attacked the World Trade Center towers in New York and the Pentagon in Washington on grasped planes. The history of this tragedy started with the fact that an American Airlines plane faced the north tower of the World Trade Center. Airliner, which had been hijacked shortly after its takeoff in Boston, filled with fire several floors of the skyscraper, from the 93rd to the 99th. At 9:03, another Boeing also took off from Boston, pierced the south tower of the World Trade Center between the 77th and 85th floors. Within 102 minutes, on September 11 the number of victims reached three thousand people. This tragic day will open a new era in modern history (Langley, 2009).

A few minutes later, at 9:37, the third Boeing, Flight 77 American Airlines, split the west wall of the Pentagon in Washington. Some staff employees were in their workplaces at this point. Meanwhile, the twin towers continued to burn. People who lost all hope jumped out of the windows. At 9:59, 56 minutes after the impact, the south tower of the World Trade Center collapsed by a cascade of concrete, steel, and fire. Elemental power erased people in the dust; it was impossible to detect even a trace of DNA from hundreds of people that were inside (Langley, 2009).

However, the dreadful day for America was not over yet. At 10:03, the fourth Boeing fell onto the field of Pennsylvania. It was captured after a take-off in Newark, New Jersey. After passengers had received a message about what was happening in New York, they resisted the terrorists who guided this airliner, most likely, to the White House. At 10:28, the north tower fell; it stood for an hour and forty two minutes after hitting. At 13:04, George Bush, nestled at Barksdale Air Force Base in Louisiana, announced the regime of complete combat readiness in the armed forces. Before his redeployment to the base of Offutt in Nebraska, George Bush wrote this message to the nation and the world: “Freedom itself was attacked this morning by a faceless coward, and freedom will be defended. Make no mistake, the United States will hunt down and punish those responsible for these cowardly acts”. Very soon, the faces of people were shown to the Americans – people who, according to the investigation seized the passenger liners and began implementing the largest attack on the United States of America since Pearl Harbor (Versluys, 2009).

Background of 9/11 is largely rooted in Islamic fundamentalism. The hostile attitude of the Muslim world towards the West is due to several of reasons. First, Western countries support the imposition of democratic regimes in Muslim countries. As a result, those in power are rich rulers supported by the West and the Parliament, which does not have the right of legislative initiative, as the laws under which the Muslim world lives can be dictated only by Allah. Secondly, considering the West, namely the USA, as a bastion of immorality, dishonesty, and moral decline, they believe that the impact of America is from “Satan” (Lurie, Magee, & Milliken, 2010).

A distinctive feature of the events of September, 11 was a terrorist use of weapons of the modern civil engineering made purely for peaceful purposes. Huge fully fueled “Boeing” turned in the hands of suicide bombers into the most powerful weapon of destruction in the history of a non-nuclear warhead – a high-precision cruise missile, which by its destructive power was greater than any modern cruise and even a ballistic missile that was not equipped with a nuclear weapon or other means of mass destruction. The first-time group of fanatics could carry out the attack, which may well be described as an act of war of annihilation. In this case, the effect of strategic surprise was achieved. As a result, political and military leadership of the United States was paralyzed for some time, and the President rushed around the country away from the alleged terrorist attack rather than explained the frightened citizens what happened. Moreover, the financial and transport system of the USA could not function normally within a few days. This has not happened even during the Pearl Harbor (Lurie, Magee, & Milliken, 2010).

Target of terrorist organizations, such as the “Al Qaeda”, “Hamas”, “Muslim Brotherhood”, is not merit of respect, but the seizure of power and the establishment of a number of Islamic theocratic states and the revival of the Muslim world. Thus, Muslims have to fight against their rulers supported by the West and against the West, the impact of which comes from “Satan”. Consequently, there is a need for huge funds for this fight on two fronts; that is why, they come to terror. Against the U.S. superperfect weapons, they oppose “human projectile” (kamikaze or suicide bomber, i.e. Shaheed). Thus, they reduce the enormous gap between the technologies. Death is the main weapon for them. In such a way, the network of transnational Islamist terrorism grew up (Feldman & Huddy, 2011).

Bush’s mention of program article “Clash of Civilizations” by American political scientist Samuel Huntington was not a slip of a tongue. It was quite a specific indication of changing the geopolitical doctrine of the USA and the West. Under the Clinton administration, it was carried out in the lives of mondialist doctrine of the “new world order” when the USA, relying on the idea of “universal civilization” and using international organizations, military power, and financial resources, planted worldwide western values. They are liberalism, individualism, constitutionalism, human rights, freedom, equality, democracy, rule of law, free markets, and church separation from the state. In this case, it is quite natural that values that have paramount importance in the West are much less important for the rest of the world (primarily in the Islamic, Confucian, and Buddhist civilizations). Moreover, the unprecedented pressure from the West causes counters hostile reaction that promotes strengthening of the Islamic (or another) primordial values (Amer & Hovey, 2012).

The foundation of 9/11 was laid back in 1979 when Soviet troops invaded Afghanistan. The U.S. forces came to oust Soviet troops from Afghanistan. Then, Bin Laden formed an organization Al-Qaeda and opened the Muslim front against both armies. The main causes of Islamic terrorism are:

· The presence of American troops in Saudi Arabia;

· Jerusalem (the third holiest city after Mecca and Medina);

· War in Afghanistan;

· Iraq war (Feldman & Huddy, 2011).

The first thing to keep in mind when talking about the Islamic world is its heterogeneity. It is divided by powerful ethnic alliances – Turkic-speaking (led by Turkey), Persian (led by Iran), and Arabic (led by Saudi Arabia and the UAE) ones. In some regions, the geopolitical interests of these geo-strategic centers intersect. Therefore, since the 60s of the last century, the leaders of the Islamic world have been trying to create a parallel to the “western” system of international organizations. The goal of these efforts is creation of the “unified Islamic world”. The Organization of the Islamic Conference (52 countries) is a kind of Islamic analogue of the United Nations. The Islamic Committee of the International Crescent (similar to the Red Cross) and the Islamic Development Bank (similar to the International Development Bank) have also been established. The fact that this unified, albeit virtually Islamic world can effectively resist pressure from the West if required proves the story of “Islamic nuclear bomb” created and tested in Pakistan in 1998 (Stewart & Mueller, 2013).

International association with flexible organizational links, customarily called the Wahhabi-Taliban alliance, is a unique and the most dangerous Islamic movement for the West. This movement of the heirs of the teachings of Muhammad bin Abd al-Wahhab (XVIII c.) was in special favor of the United States, Saudi Arabia, and Pakistan during the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan when on the basis of this doctrine Islamic Expeditionary Force was created. That is why, the Wahhabi-Taliban alliance, which is inherent in particularly aggressive proselytism, is the form of association of Muslims, which is able to give the West the armed resistance with the tacit support of the “moderate” Islamic countries and organizations. Against the background of a good-natured relaxation of the West, jihadist Islam is especially impressive because it is not only ready to commit violence, but also puts it at the forefront (Amer & Hovey, 2012).

Taken together, these factors have led to these unexpected and tragic events of September 11. Such a turn could have been expected. There are two circumstances: the growing terrorist organizations and their growing capabilities. Unfortunately, there was a time when the superpowers had not taken this phenomenon seriously, hoping to use terrorist groups against each other, especially during the First World War. However, terrorist groups managed to grow and have already outgrown the scale when someone can control it (Amer & Hovey, 2012).

A mighty terrorist center is located in the Muslim states of the Middle East and is funded by Islamic fundamentalists. In the ideological sense, it is undeclared war or the sort of jihad against the “global US-Zionist conspiracy” as it is interpreted by the most radical sheikhs and imams of the states where the U.S. has long been considered as the enemy. From this perspective, it becomes apparent that the United States and the so-called “international community” face an ideological machine that combines more than one billion people in the world. In all Islamic countries, there are people who completely share the view that the words “America” and “Satan” are synonymous. Self-confidence of the United States has a bad side, which is a reduced sense of danger. There was not one accidentally captured plane, but four became “invisible” with a long interval of time (20 minutes for a modern fighter aircraft is sufficient). Just knowing about a similar hole in the national air defense system, it is possible to plan conceived operation (Markham & Abu-Rabi, 2012).

After September 11, people have started talking about the beginning of the “third world war”. Indeed, this is a war. Terrorism is a war, but of a special kind. It is not a war between the rivals operating in the space of one “world”. The terrorist war is led by those who fight against the existing “world” for its radical remaking. Such a war, of course, has “religious” nature. The most successful (in terms of terrorism) attacks are those that affect “tops” of the “hostile world” and its main symbols. For today’s Islamic terrorists, such symbol was the World Trade Center in New York (Amer & Hovey, 2012).

The tragedy has shaken the American economy. The business center of New York City was destroyed, the losses were incurred on large companies, the normal activities of urban infrastructure and services were being restored for a long time. The insurance companies had to pay the owners of the destroyed World Trade Center towers several billion dollars. During these days, the stock index fell by 14%, which became the biggest weekly drop in the history, surpassing even the Great Depression era figures. At the same time, ratings of President George W. Bush skyrocketed up to 86% (Streatfeild, 2011).

The reply of the United States was the activation of the U.S. foreign policy in the Middle East region. This “war on terrorism” was not limited to only search for “Al-Qaeda”, it turned to be the large-scale action in the Middle East. When it was announced that Osama bin Laden and other terrorist leaders were hiding in the mountains of Afghanistan and cooperated with the Taliban regime, there began “Operation Enduring Freedom” aimed at the invasion of Afghanistan. Then, under the pretext of being involved in the tragedy of Saddam Hussein, the invasion to Iraq started. The military and the U.S. intelligence services began to urgently strengthen and prepare to similar tragedies. It is estimated that in the ten years since September 11 the military budget of the United States has increased by more than two times and during this time the state has spent more than $ 7 trillion on military operations in Afghanistan and Iraq, the Ministry of Defense and intelligence agencies (Streatfeild, 2011).

After the tragedy of September 11, many new laws were adopted. For example, the authority of the president has been expanded. Now, he could use military force without submitting to the Congress. Special services received the right to interfere with private lives of the Americans without charge or trial. For example, since 2002, intelligence agencies can listen to telephone conversations and view e-mails of people in the case the authorities “have reason” to believe that it will help protect national security. Since September 11, 2001, the tension in the relations with the Muslim world has begun to increase (Markham & Abu-Rabi, 2012). Muslims are seen as potential terrorists without delving into their belonging to one or another course of Islam. So, in 2001, more than 80,000 Muslims living in the United States were subjected to mandatory registration and fingerprinting (Amer & Hovey, 2012). After the September 11 terrorist attacks, some parts of the United States issued anti-Arab and anti-Muslim statements. The organization of the “Council on American-Islamic Relations” (CAIR) issued a report on more than 300 incidents of anti-Islamic orientation. FBI Director Robert Mueller told to institute 40 cases to investigate crimes committed on the basis of ethnic hatred, including attacks on Arab-American citizens and institutions (Markham & Abu-Rabi, 2012). In the atmosphere of suspicion and intolerance, many Arabs living in the United States were forced to return to their homeland. Among them, there were hundreds of students enrolled in American universities and colleges. It was no coincidence that on September 14 President Bush was forced to call publicly for contact with the Arabs and all Muslims “with the respect they deserve”. On September 17, Bush visited the Islamic Center in Washington where he expressed his negative attitude to the actions against American Muslims taken in response to the terrorist attacks in Washington and New York (Trevino, Kanso, & Nelson, 2012).

In late October 2001, the House of Representatives passed a bill on combating terrorism with 357 votes against 66. Bill facilitated receiving information from law enforcement and intelligence agencies and updated laws on surveillance with new information tools, such as e-mail and cell phones. 211 Republicans and 145 Democrats voted for this law against 62 Democrats, 3 Republicans, and 1 independent congressman. Thus, one third of the members of the democratic faction opposed the bill. The bill, which was called the Patriot Act, the Protection of the United States, unity around the Stars & Stripes, was discussed in the most undemocratic manner. The Act slipped through Congress in record time without the usual procedures of discussion in the committees, which scared the supporters of civil rights. Thus, the September 11 terrorist attacks had a major impact on the perceived public opinion about the role of civil rights and freedoms, the functions of the state, and the very essence of the “American way of life” (Bernstein, 2013).

Changes that the world faced after 9/11 are:

· The threat to the division of the world into Muslims and non-Muslims;

· There was a growth of separatism;

· There was a need for the settlement of regional conflicts, particularly in the Middle East;

· The increased practice of unilateral decisions, especially in the United States;

· The United States withdrew from the ABM Treaty, confirming the course for the creation of a national missile defense system;

· There has started the war against terrorism in Afghanistan and there was the opportunity to continue it in Iraq.

The terrorist attacks on New York and Washington on September 11, 2001 dashed the hopes of many nations and peoples of the world in the usual course of human evolution in a new XXIst century. It seems that the “Black Tuesday” crossed out some models and doctrines, concepts and hypotheses of the future world order. The international community has responded on 9/11 by the reception of the resolution № 1368 of the UN Security Council. It condemned the acts of terror committed on September 11, 2001, which were considered as a threat to international peace and security, and called on all states to work together urgently to bring perpetrators, organizers, and sponsors of these terrorist attacks to justice.

Annotated Bibliography

Amer, M. M., & Hovey, J. D. (2012). Anxiety and depression in a post-September 11 sample of Arabs in the USA. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 47(3), 409-418.

This study is basically about mental health complications that the American Muslims got due to their persecution and harassment after September 11 events. However, this research has many useful facts about background of terrorist attacks, how terrorist groups managed to grow, and what potentially dangerous international organizations the Islam world has.

Feldman, L., & Huddy, L. (2011). Americans respond politically to 9/11: Understanding the impact of the terrorist attacks and their aftermath. American Psychologist, 66(6), 455-467.

In this study, Stanley Feldman and Leonie Huddy explain how profoundly September 11 events affect the legislative system of the USA and how the September 11 events relate to domestic and foreign security policy. The authors explain the main causes of Islamic terrorism and determine the main targets of terroristic groups.

Magee, J. C., Milliken, F. J., & Lurie, A. R. (2010). Power differences in the construal of a crisis: The immediate aftermath of September 11, 2001. PSPB, 36(3), 354-370.

This study describes the events that happen in the aftermath of September 11 terrorist attacks. The authors analyze relationships between power and society after 9/11, explain why Islamic fundamentalism has a background in the September 11 tragic events, what the distinctive feature of September 11 terrorist attacks is, and why Islamic countries have such a negative attitude to the West.

Stewart, M.G., & Mueller, J. (2013). The terrorism delusion: America’s overwrought response to September 11. International Security, 37(1), 81-110.

The authors show what the reaction of Americans to September 11 terrorist attacks was, and how ill-conceived and remarkably unreflective their efforts to react were. This study explains why heterogeneity should be firmly associated with the Islamic world, how and why the Islamic world can effectively resist pressure from the West, and what purpose the Islamic world had in the creation of the system of international organizations.

Trevino, M., Kanso, A. M., & Nelson, Alan R. (2010). Islam through editorial lenses: How American elite newspapers portrayed Muslims before and after September 11, 2001. Journal of Arab & Muslim Media Research, 3(1), 3-17.

The authors show us misconceptions about Islam and its followers after the terrorist attack on September 11. They explain what laws were adopted after September 11 terrorist attacks, how widely the capabilities of President and intelligence agencies extended, how abruptly average U.S. citizens changed their attitude towards Muslims, and how much Muslims have suffered from this. The authors show that the events of September 11 affected the American Muslims more than the representatives of other faiths.


Amer, M. M., & Hovey, J. D. (2012). Anxiety and depression in a post-September 11 sample of Arabs in the USA. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 47(3), 409-418.

Bernstein, R. (2013). Out of the blue: A narrative of September 11, 2001. New York: Henry Holt & Co.

Feldman, L., & Huddy, L. (2011). Americans respond politically to 9/11: Understanding the impact of the terrorist attacks and their aftermath. American Psychologist, 66(6), 455-467.

Langley, A. (2009). September 11 Attack on America. New York: Paw Prints Publishing.

Magee, J. C., Milliken, F. J., & Lurie, A. R. (2010). Power differences in the construal of a crisis: The immediate aftermath of September 11, 2001. PSPB, 36(3), 354-370.

Markham, I., & Abu-Rabi, I. M. (Eds.). (2012). September 11: Religious perspectives on the causes and consequences. London, UK: Oneworld.

Stewart, M. G., & Mueller, J. (2013). The terrorism delusion: America’s overwrought response to September 11. International Security, 37(1), 81-110.

Streatfeild, D. (2011). A history of the world since 9/11. New York: Atlantic Books Ltd.

Trevino, M., Kanso, A. M., & Nelson, Alan R. (2010). Islam through editorial lenses: How American elite newspapers portrayed Muslims before and after September 11, 2001. Journal of Arab & Muslim Media Research, 3(1), 3-17.

Versluys, K. (2009). Out of the blue: September 11 and the novel. New York: Columbia University Press.

Social Influences on Behavior [Essay Example]

People with social media concept

Definition and Context

Social loafing effect is a group effect in social psychology, one of the mechanisms of the group, which consists in the fact that with the increase in the number of group members its performance is reduced. That is, the individual contribution of each member of the group decreases as group size increases. Social loafing, or loss of motivation, is reflected in the fact that people make less effort when working in a group, relying on the colleagues while performing different tasks. Although, the group members usually find they are laid out completely. In addition, a member of the group may manifest social loafing unintentionally, as a result of health condition, for example. In one way or another, effect of social loafing affects all employees of modern companies. The precautions of this phenomenon are similar to people of any age, sex, religion, or social status (Gilles, n.d.).

Most often, this phenomenon can be observed in large groups, the so-called crowd, where people’s behavior changes radically (Ridley, 2012). One of the contexts for the social loafing effect is unequal division of responsibility for the outcome: the greater is the group, the smaller is the contribution of each participant in the final act. That is why reduced personal responsibility decreases the result. The second reason for decrease in performance groups includes diversion of resources to social interaction. Even if a team sets strict discipline, people will at least glance at their colleagues. The third factor may be effect of emotional infection, exhibited inside the group. Negative emotions transfer quickly, and if one of the members of the team is sluggish, sleepy, has a negative set, the probability of occurrence of these symptoms in others is quite large. Often social loafing is manifested on employees who have lost interest to what they are doing (Gilles, n.d.).

Precursors and Consequences

The first and main precursor for social loafing effect is the size of the group. It was mentioned above that the larger is the group, the greater is the probability that someone in the group would hide an inability to work in the final team results. The social laziness in a small team is much easier to handle since it is much easier to establish personal contact with each individual employee. Second precursor is the equalization of group members’ contribution to the result. In this case, an individual employee sees that no matter how hard he works, he would achieve the same appreciation as other members of the team, which reduces his motivation and performance. Finally, the absence of adequate punishment also is a dangerous precursor of social loafing. Actually, realization that there is no punishment for any offence leads to absence of fear and poor performance (Ridley, 2012).

The main consequence of social loafing is poor performance, as it was mentioned earlier. However, there are several individual outcomes occurring as a result of this phenomenon. First – the loss of motivation by individual not only in the work performance but also in life as a whole. Second – the loss of individual thinking and dependence on group thinking, in other words, the inability to perform separately from the group. Third, social loafing has behavioral effects, such as bandwagon effect, that is copying the behavior of the crowd. Finally, social loafing can lead to the personal traits between individuals, especially between those who perform well and “loafers”. As it can be seen, social loafing changes individual behavior, state of thinking, relationships, and general psychophysical condition. Generally, it is much easier to prevent this phenomenon than to deal with its direct consequences. Therefore, the action should be taken toward the improvement of the group performance, and thus, the decrease of social loafing effect risks (Gilles, n.d.).


Gilles, G. (n.d.). Social loafing: Definition, examples & theory. Education Portal. Retrieved from

Ridley, H. (2012). Social Loafing [Video file]. Retrieved from

The Art of Writing. How to Master It?

You may not realize it, but writing has been acquiring a great importance and drawing special attention lately. One may think that the era of letters has come to an end, but it just transformed into a new form and entered our lives with a new force. It is now so widespread that it can definitely get the status of the art of writing because the more skillful and masterly it is, the greater the chances are that you will be understood, accepted and liked. Whether you are a professional and experienced writer or not, you probably face the need to write something every day. It may be a text message to your friend, a report to your boss, a review of a book, a feedback on a social network – the list is almost endless. Everything boils down to the undeniable fact that we use a variety of types of writing throughout our everyday activities, that is why it is efficient and even recommended to learn a few important principles to get better at it.

Here We Go:

  • You have to keep in mind that while working on your written piece, you must focus on the way it can be perceived by those who read it or listen to it. Why is art important? Because it is designed to bring something new and entertaining to other people’s minds. Pick out and write about something which might be considered fresh and mentally beneficial.
  • Do not overload a reader with the words congestions. It often only stands up against proper comprehension. Be brief and to the point.
  • You really need to be fascinated by the subject you write on yourself. It is a formula for encouraging everyone else to find your writing appealing.
  • What is art essay? It takes place when you know how to make the routine objects and events brighter and dazzling. There are a lot of expressive means and devices in literature for you to find and apply the most appropriate ones.
  • Don’t try to sound high-flown. Your work will probably become more readable and familiar when it is written in plain words.
  • It’s not necessary to create some purpose of your writing. You don’t need to wait for it to live up to somebody’s expectations or to fulfill some kind of task. Write whatever you want, speak out of anything you feel has to be said. And then you’ll see how people react to your writing.
  • When it comes to creative writing, some unpleasant comments very often take place alongside with it. So get wise to handling them without damaging yourself. Work on the opinions that will help you to rise professionally.
  • Devote as much time to writing as possible. You are not allowed to put it off till another time. This time is now and you have to use it to write if you want to achieve a desirable result.
  • Another piece of advice from the list of writing tips. To be persuasive and, therefore, advantageous, your writing has to be credible. That is why stick to the fields and topics you are cut and dried in or choose the ones you are willing to investigate and improve your knowledge in.
  • If you refer to the vast majority of successful writers and learn some of their most prominent suggestions and experience they shared, you’ll discover that being yourself is the most essential thing while writing. To create a masterpiece, you definitely don’t need to look through the lenses of the worn out patterns and clichés. You don’t have to be like someone else or imitate the manner of someone you find respected and prosperous. Raise the unique and at times weirs phrases from the bottom of your consciousness, try things out with the most diverse writing ideas, don’t put bounds to your writing as for its content, genre, language etc. Look ahead and don’t be afraid.

If you take into account all these tips, very good chances are that you’ll be able to compose a great piece of writing easily and without any issues. Moreover, your writing will be noteworthy to the addressees.

You may start writing right now to check it yourself!

War of Independence [History Essay Example]

War of Independence

Why Did America Win the War of Independence

With a seasoned, professional army and an abundance of resources at their disposal, it seems reasonable to have expected the British military to achieve a quick and easy victory over the ragtag American rebel forces who had declared independence from their colonial rulers in 1776. Yet, in spite of the initial difficulties in recruiting the militia in adequate numbers and the economic struggles brought by the war, the Colonies were ultimately able to defeat Great Britain and gain independence. This paper will argue that there were three major explanations for why America won the war against the odds. Continue reading War of Independence [History Essay Example]

Theodore Roosevelt and Thomas Woodrow Wilson in United States Policy [History Essay Example]

Theodore Roosevelt and Thomas Woodrow Wilson in United States Policy

Part I

1. Rapid development in the industrial sphere demanded a conquest of other lands to get the raw materials. In order to increase exports, manufacturers and farmers were needed. American industry requested new markets. Therefore, the naval forces had to expand with the purpose of protecting shipping lanes where vessels could replenish their supplies. The country had to expand its territory and democratic values, moral and religious idealism, and obligation to colonize other less developed nations by survival of the fittest. Continue reading Theodore Roosevelt and Thomas Woodrow Wilson in United States Policy [History Essay Example]

Exploring History and Theorists of History [Essay Example]


History is a notion which connects people with their past. Therefore, it is highly important to understand the meaning of the word “history” and the role of the major theorists of history and historians. The paper will provide the definitions of “history”, “historiography”, and “historicism” as well as interrogate major historians and theorists of history. Continue reading Exploring History and Theorists of History [Essay Example]

Rachel Lachowicz – Post-Modernist Sculptor [Art Design Essay Example]

Known as lipstick feminist Rachel Lachowicz is also a renowned sculptor who has been working in the Post-Modernist period with all implications that follow from it. Lachowicz works with various media ranging from glass and enamel to metal to wax and lipstick eclectically mixing recent minimalist, abstraction, and pop art tendencies with her own artistic vision. Continue reading Rachel Lachowicz – Post-Modernist Sculptor [Art Design Essay Example]

Art History: Francisco de Goya’s Paintings [Essay Example]

Francisco de Goya y Lucientes was an artist who adroitly reflected both romantic ideas and sufferings of the past generations, at the same time anticipating epiphanies and lacerations of modern people. This prominent representative of both Romanticism and Modernism was inspired by Velázquez and Rembrandt, but the main source of his creative enlightenments was nature. Continue reading Art History: Francisco de Goya’s Paintings [Essay Example]