Social Influences on Behavior [Essay Example]

People with social media concept

Definition and Context

Social loafing effect is a group effect in social psychology, one of the mechanisms of the group, which consists in the fact that with the increase in the number of group members its performance is reduced. That is, the individual contribution of each member of the group decreases as group size increases. Social loafing, or loss of motivation, is reflected in the fact that people make less effort when working in a group, relying on the colleagues while performing different tasks. Although, the group members usually find they are laid out completely. In addition, a member of the group may manifest social loafing unintentionally, as a result of health condition, for example. In one way or another, effect of social loafing affects all employees of modern companies. The precautions of this phenomenon are similar to people of any age, sex, religion, or social status (Gilles, n.d.).

Most often, this phenomenon can be observed in large groups, the so-called crowd, where people’s behavior changes radically (Ridley, 2012). One of the contexts for the social loafing effect is unequal division of responsibility for the outcome: the greater is the group, the smaller is the contribution of each participant in the final act. That is why reduced personal responsibility decreases the result. The second reason for decrease in performance groups includes diversion of resources to social interaction. Even if a team sets strict discipline, people will at least glance at their colleagues. The third factor may be effect of emotional infection, exhibited inside the group. Negative emotions transfer quickly, and if one of the members of the team is sluggish, sleepy, has a negative set, the probability of occurrence of these symptoms in others is quite large. Often social loafing is manifested on employees who have lost interest to what they are doing (Gilles, n.d.).

Precursors and Consequences

The first and main precursor for social loafing effect is the size of the group. It was mentioned above that the larger is the group, the greater is the probability that someone in the group would hide an inability to work in the final team results. The social laziness in a small team is much easier to handle since it is much easier to establish personal contact with each individual employee. Second precursor is the equalization of group members’ contribution to the result. In this case, an individual employee sees that no matter how hard he works, he would achieve the same appreciation as other members of the team, which reduces his motivation and performance. Finally, the absence of adequate punishment also is a dangerous precursor of social loafing. Actually, realization that there is no punishment for any offence leads to absence of fear and poor performance (Ridley, 2012).

The main consequence of social loafing is poor performance, as it was mentioned earlier. However, there are several individual outcomes occurring as a result of this phenomenon. First – the loss of motivation by individual not only in the work performance but also in life as a whole. Second – the loss of individual thinking and dependence on group thinking, in other words, the inability to perform separately from the group. Third, social loafing has behavioral effects, such as bandwagon effect, that is copying the behavior of the crowd. Finally, social loafing can lead to the personal traits between individuals, especially between those who perform well and “loafers”. As it can be seen, social loafing changes individual behavior, state of thinking, relationships, and general psychophysical condition. Generally, it is much easier to prevent this phenomenon than to deal with its direct consequences. Therefore, the action should be taken toward the improvement of the group performance, and thus, the decrease of social loafing effect risks (Gilles, n.d.).

References

Gilles, G. (n.d.). Social loafing: Definition, examples & theory. Education Portal. Retrieved from http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/social-loafing-definition-examples-theory.html#lesson

Ridley, H. (2012). Social Loafing [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SRgqdALTGHc

The Art of Writing. How to Master It?

You may not realize it, but writing has been acquiring a great importance and drawing special attention lately. One may think that the era of letters has come to an end, but it just transformed into a new form and entered our lives with a new force. It is now so widespread that it can definitely get the status of the art of writing because the more skillful and masterly it is, the greater the chances are that you will be understood, accepted and liked. Whether you are a professional and experienced writer or not, you probably face the need to write something every day. It may be a text message to your friend, a report to your boss, a review of a book, a feedback on a social network – the list is almost endless. Everything boils down to the undeniable fact that we use a variety of types of writing throughout our everyday activities, that is why it is efficient and even recommended to learn a few important principles to get better at it.

Here We Go:

  • You have to keep in mind that while working on your written piece, you must focus on the way it can be perceived by those who read it or listen to it. Why is art important? Because it is designed to bring something new and entertaining to other people’s minds. Pick out and write about something which might be considered fresh and mentally beneficial.
  • Do not overload a reader with the words congestions. It often only stands up against proper comprehension. Be brief and to the point.
  • You really need to be fascinated by the subject you write on yourself. It is a formula for encouraging everyone else to find your writing appealing.
  • What is art essay? It takes place when you know how to make the routine objects and events brighter and dazzling. There are a lot of expressive means and devices in literature for you to find and apply the most appropriate ones.
  • Don’t try to sound high-flown. Your work will probably become more readable and familiar when it is written in plain words.
  • It’s not necessary to create some purpose of your writing. You don’t need to wait for it to live up to somebody’s expectations or to fulfill some kind of task. Write whatever you want, speak out of anything you feel has to be said. And then you’ll see how people react to your writing.
  • When it comes to creative writing, some unpleasant comments very often take place alongside with it. So get wise to handling them without damaging yourself. Work on the opinions that will help you to rise professionally.
  • Devote as much time to writing as possible. You are not allowed to put it off till another time. This time is now and you have to use it to write if you want to achieve a desirable result.
  • Another piece of advice from the list of writing tips. To be persuasive and, therefore, advantageous, your writing has to be credible. That is why stick to the fields and topics you are cut and dried in or choose the ones you are willing to investigate and improve your knowledge in.
  • If you refer to the vast majority of successful writers and learn some of their most prominent suggestions and experience they shared, you’ll discover that being yourself is the most essential thing while writing. To create a masterpiece, you definitely don’t need to look through the lenses of the worn out patterns and clichés. You don’t have to be like someone else or imitate the manner of someone you find respected and prosperous. Raise the unique and at times weirs phrases from the bottom of your consciousness, try things out with the most diverse writing ideas, don’t put bounds to your writing as for its content, genre, language etc. Look ahead and don’t be afraid.

If you take into account all these tips, very good chances are that you’ll be able to compose a great piece of writing easily and without any issues. Moreover, your writing will be noteworthy to the addressees.

You may start writing right now to check it yourself!

War of Independence [History Essay Example]

War of Independence

Why Did America Win the War of Independence

With a seasoned, professional army and an abundance of resources at their disposal, it seems reasonable to have expected the British military to achieve a quick and easy victory over the ragtag American rebel forces who had declared independence from their colonial rulers in 1776. Yet, in spite of the initial difficulties in recruiting the militia in adequate numbers and the economic struggles brought by the war, the Colonies were ultimately able to defeat Great Britain and gain independence. This paper will argue that there were three major explanations for why America won the war against the odds. Continue reading War of Independence [History Essay Example]

Theodore Roosevelt and Thomas Woodrow Wilson in United States Policy [History Essay Example]

Theodore Roosevelt and Thomas Woodrow Wilson in United States Policy

Part I

1. Rapid development in the industrial sphere demanded a conquest of other lands to get the raw materials. In order to increase exports, manufacturers and farmers were needed. American industry requested new markets. Therefore, the naval forces had to expand with the purpose of protecting shipping lanes where vessels could replenish their supplies. The country had to expand its territory and democratic values, moral and religious idealism, and obligation to colonize other less developed nations by survival of the fittest. Continue reading Theodore Roosevelt and Thomas Woodrow Wilson in United States Policy [History Essay Example]

Exploring History and Theorists of History [Essay Example]

Introduction

History is a notion which connects people with their past. Therefore, it is highly important to understand the meaning of the word “history” and the role of the major theorists of history and historians. The paper will provide the definitions of “history”, “historiography”, and “historicism” as well as interrogate major historians and theorists of history. Continue reading Exploring History and Theorists of History [Essay Example]

Rachel Lachowicz – Post-Modernist Sculptor [Art Design Essay Example]

Known as lipstick feminist Rachel Lachowicz is also a renowned sculptor who has been working in the Post-Modernist period with all implications that follow from it. Lachowicz works with various media ranging from glass and enamel to metal to wax and lipstick eclectically mixing recent minimalist, abstraction, and pop art tendencies with her own artistic vision. Continue reading Rachel Lachowicz – Post-Modernist Sculptor [Art Design Essay Example]

Art History: Francisco de Goya’s Paintings [Essay Example]

Francisco de Goya y Lucientes was an artist who adroitly reflected both romantic ideas and sufferings of the past generations, at the same time anticipating epiphanies and lacerations of modern people. This prominent representative of both Romanticism and Modernism was inspired by Velázquez and Rembrandt, but the main source of his creative enlightenments was nature. Continue reading Art History: Francisco de Goya’s Paintings [Essay Example]

Social Logic [History Essay Example]

The famous archeologists Ken Flannery and Joyce Marcus studied the evolution of the human beings with the point of view archeology. They came to the conclusion that all individuals had equal rights from the very beginning of the human civilization, but the inequality and its origin were the main question to consider. Continue reading Social Logic [History Essay Example]